Volume 1 Issue 1
Making Airway Immunology Disease-Relevant
Chan Mi Lee and Rahul Kushwah*
With aging population and increased life expectancy in many of the industrialized countries, burden of disease is inevitably on the rise. Respiratory tract infection is a leading cause of illness in the elderly, and primary source of infection in 47% of severe sepsis cases. Sepsis is another major disease of the aged, where over 60% of sepsis incidence and 80% of death arise from patients over the age of 65. Interestingly, more than 50% of sepsis patients also develop acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with higher disease severity compared to non-sepsis cases, implicating the lung as a central organ system associated with morbidity in the elderly. Therefore, better understanding of age-related changes in the lung immune defense is imperative to improve the quality of life in the elderly population.
Immune Response to Immunodominant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigen ESAT6- Derived Peptide is HLA-Haplotype Dependent
Michele Smart, Marshall Behrens, Luckey David, Catherine Conway, Veena Taneja*
The antigenic proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) have been defined. We used synthetic peptides of secreted antigens, early secreted antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6) and cultural filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10), of Mtb and characterized the immune response in context of HLA genes. Humanized mice lacking endogenous class II molecules but expressing various human DR and DQ HLA transgenes singly or as a haplotype were used to study the HLA-mediated immune response to peptides. Our observations showed that the overall response to the promiscuous ESAT-6 31-45 peptide may be dependent on the HLA haplotype rather than a single DR or DQ molecule.
Is Innovative Immunotherapy Affordable to Payors?
D. Brehmer*, C Schreder
Allergic Rhinits (AR) is a widespread problem across the world. Disease prevalence and incidence show an increasing trend. While AR is trivialized in itself, the follow-on diseases, such as allergic asthma (AA) can result in significant cost to payors.
Effect of Aloe vera Extract on the Wound Healing Process. Histological Study in Cyclophosphamide-Treated Mice
Fernando André Campos Viana*,Ismenia Osório Leite, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes Alves, Sérgio Luís da Silva Pereira
Wound healing is a fundamental response to tissue injury, resulting in restoration of the tissue’s integrity. Aloe vera is a tropical cactus that has shown its therapeutic potential in a variety of soft-tissue injuries, and has been used in the treatment of wounds. In this study, wounds were created on the back of cyclophosphamide-treated mice which received treatment consisting in the topical application of Aloe vera gel on the surface of the wounds.
Cooperation Between Complement and Kinin Systems in Angioedema Episodes
Angioneurotic edema is characterized by an undesirable and localized increase in vascular permeability. The endothelium is a continuous physical barrier that regulates selective passage of soluble molecules through the vessel wall into the tissue. Due to its anatomic localization, the endothelium may contact components of the complement, the kinin and the coagulation systems.
Asthma: How, When and Why to “Draw” the Genetic Backgrounds. The Interaction between the Enthusiasm of Researchers and the Low Clinical Application
Fernando Augusto de Lima Marson*, Carmen Silvia Bertuzzo, and Jose Dirceu Ribeiro
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease and needs to be examined in detail considering its multiple facets and aspects. Since it presents a wide range of nuances and shades in the clinical presentation of its phenotypes, asthma can be seen as a paradigm to studies on genetics, especially on questioning the genetic origin of such plurality of phenotypes.
Modulation of Immune Response by Ultra-Violet Light in HLA Class-II Transgenic Mice
Daniel Bastardo Blanco, David Luckey, Michele Smart, Mark Pittelkow, Rajiv Kumar, Chella S David, and Ashutosh K Mangalam *
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and debilitating disease of the central nervous system linked to both genetic and environmental factors. Among the genetic factors, MHC, especially HLA class-II, is strongly associated with predisposition to MS. Although in vitro studies have helped us understand some aspects of HLA class-II association with the disease, performing in vivo analysis is necessary in order to further understand this correlation. Studying the role of class-II genes in vivo is a difficult task due to the heterogeneity of human population, the complexity of MHC, and the strong linkage disequilibrium among different class-II genes.
CD4+CD25+Treg Cells in Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Nephritis Patients
Hongdong Huang*, Weiming Sun, Yumei Liang, Xi-Dai Long , Youming Peng, Zhihua Liu,Ru Tian, Chengli Bai and Cui Li
Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a form of systemic vasculitis characterised by vascular wall deposits of predominally IgA typically involving small vessels in skin, gut and glomeruli and associated with purpura, colic, haematuria and arthralgia or arthritis.
Development of CXCR4 Antagonist for Treatment of AIDS
Wan-Gang Gu* and Xuan Zhang
The C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a seven transmembrane G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1). CXCR4 is expressed widely in immune system and central nervous system. The CXCR4/SDF-1 axis plays important role in multiple physiological processes. The binding of SDF-1 to CXCR4 activates multiple downstream pathways.